Basketball, the American national sport, was created to help Y.M.C.A. members play the winter sport. Because in winter, the terrain in general Being covered in snow is an obstacle in outdoor sports such as American football and บาสเกตบอล baseball, the Y.M.C.A. Association Committee has sought solutions to allow members to play winter sports without becoming bored.
In 1891, Dr. James A. Naismith, a physical education teacher at The International Y.M.C.A. Training School, was in Springfield, Massachusetts. Assigned by Dr. Gulick to the inventor of indoor sports suitable to be played in the winter, Dr. James has made an effort to adapt the sport of American football and baseball, and to create a play that is more suitable for playing in the winter. For the first time, Dr. James used a soccer ball and basket as equipment for athletes to play. He hung a basket of peaches on the wall of the gymnasium. Then allow the players to try to throw the ball into the basket By using a smaller playing field, dividing the players into 7 players. The first results of the experiment, the players were fun and excited. But lack of order. Collisions, pushing each other, kicking each other, which is a violent play in the experiment. Later, Dr. James cut off the violent play. And has made a rule forbidding the players to come into contact with each other It can be considered as the primary principle of basketball, Dr. James has therefore laid out four major rules for playing basketball:
1. The player in control of the ball must stop at a place where it is forbidden to move.
2. The goal must be over the player’s head. And is parallel to the ground
3. Players can hold the ball for any length of time. In which the opponent could not enter the correct player who
Possession of the ball
4. All violent play is strictly prohibited. Both players must not clash.
When the rules of play were set up, they were put to trial. And try to improve and rectify better regulations He tried to reduce the number of players to avoid collision. Finally, the players were assigned 5 people each, which is the most appropriate number for the field area. Dr. James has tried to play several times. And develop playing continuously Until he had written 13 rules of play and the original play still appears on the prestigious board of physical education at Springfield to this day.
The 13 rules of Dr. James are as follows:
1. Players are prohibited from holding the ball and running.
2. Players may pass the ball in any direction. By using one hand or both hands
3. Players may dribble in any direction. By using one hand or both hands
4. Players must use both hands to control the ball. Do not use your body to assist in possession of the ball.
5. In play, the shoulder is hitting. Or use your hands to pull, push, hit or do anything to knock the opponent down.
No, if a player violates, it is considered a foul 1 time, if 2 fouls have no right to play Until one side
Any side can score goals so they can play again. If injury occurs during the match, there will be no
6. Do not touch children with legs or feet. It is a 1-time foul.
7. If either side fouls 3 times in a row, the other side will score a goal.
8. Goals scored or counted as goals Must be throwing the ball into the basket The defense will get busy.
Regardless of the door.
9. When either side makes the ball out of the bounds. Let the other side send the ball in from the edge of the field
Within 5 seconds, if more than 5 seconds, change send And if any player tries to delay any time,
10. The umpire has the duty to decide which player fouls. And punish the players to lose their rights
11. The umpire is responsible for determining which ball is out of court. And which side sends the ball to play and will do
Act as a timekeeper, recording the number of goals scored. And perform general duties according to the referee’s mission
12. The play is divided into 2 halves, 20 minutes each.
13. The side that scores the most goals is the winner. In the event of a tie, extension is awarded and if either side scores a goal first, it is considered a win.
Although the rules of play are established to allow the elderly to play for recreational fun. But this sport quickly gained popularity with youth. In spite of many people seeing it as a sport for the weak However, this feeling gradually faded as the speed and accuracy of basketball began to fade away. Has created an impression and attracted more and more people’s attention. And it spread quickly to the east of America and when schools realized the importance of this sport. Therefore brought together popular to play all over the country
Before 1915, although basketball was an extremely popular sport. But it is limited to just playing for exercise in the gym No organization is responsible for managing the game. Except for the professional basketball organizations that have only created a few organizations and then quit. Therefore, playing basketball in each and every place has different rules and regulations. This makes it a huge obstacle to the growth and development of basketball.
Therefore, in 1915 the Y.M.C.A., the National University Sports Association and the Amateur Sports Federation Have attended the meeting to draft rules for playing basketball up to the same norm. The Covenant was valid until 1938 and was revised at the 11th Olympics in Berlin, Germany. With the International Olympic Committee at the consideration